Why do women do not want to have children?Can the low fertility spell sweep in East Asia, can it be broken?

"Please give birth to a child!" This sentence said the voice of East Asian countries.

In recent years, the curse of low fertility rate has been surrounded by East Asian countries, and countries have different population dilemma.Not only is China, as a big country, facing the age of population, South Korea and Japan have fallen into a "curse" of low fertility rates.

Theoretically, the more developed the economy is generally lower, the lower the fertility rate. Why do countries have different degrees of population dilemma with the development of the economy?Can such a population dilemma be broken in the future?

The concept of "decreasing" comes from Japanese. "Little childization" and "young children aging" are both social policy terms for population development characteristics.

In the expression of the population academic community, the population fertility rate of a country is lower than that of the 2.1 population required to maintain the population for a period of time, which means that the population birth rate in the region declines.In other words, this ratio is when the birth rate and mortality of the population tends to be balanced.

Among several countries in East Asia, the fertility rate has long been lower than this standard.Especially in South Korea, in the fertility rate statistics in 2022, South Korea’s fertility rate is only 0.98, even below 1, not only the fertility rate is low, but also decreases very fast.It has become the only country in the world to enter the "zero era", and the population mortality rate is too much of the birth rate. Therefore, it is also ridiculed that "South Korea will break the world records and will become the first in the world to disappear from the earth because of the decline in population.nation".

Japan is also no exception. Japan ’s fertility rate has declined very much after the 1960s, especially since the 1970s, this value has gradually fallen from 2.16 to 1.74.It was only 1.26 until 2005.It has been low for a long time, and some people worry that the Japanese will not be out of place because of this.

In the face of the social phenomenon of "young children", "low desire", and "unmarried infertility", Japan did not sit still, but launched a series of policies to encourage young people to marry and have children, but it seems that it is not useful.

Coincidentally, China also faces these problems. Since the implementation of family planning policies in the 1980s, China’s fertility rate has decreased significantly.After 2000, the total fertility rate was lower than 2.1, and since then, the fertility rate has never reached 2.1.

Until the two -child policy was released, this situation has not improved.According to statistics, from 2007 to 2015, the fertility rate of one child has gradually declined.

Even if the second child policy is open, the fertility rate of the second child has increased.However, another extreme phenomenon occurred. While the number of second child rose, the number of first tires still stagnated.This means that those who can have children will continue, but those who do not have children will still not give birth.

Especially now, in the era of post -90s and post -00s, most people are unwilling to have children. Even if the policy is open to three children, there are still people who are unwilling to give birth.Why does this phenomenon appear?

No matter which country and the era of marriage and child, in which era, it has been a very realistic question since ancient times.If you don’t get married, it means being urged to marry.However, it has gradually become a reason for young people to have no children.

First of all, high house prices are the first step to suppress young children.House prices in the United States are about three times the average household income price, Taiwan, China, 6 times that of income, and Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.Well, the more intense competition will only be higher in mainland China, South Korea, Japan and other regions, without the highest.

Take South Korea, for example, a total of 50 million people, 23 million of which, that is, nearly half of the population lives in the Seoul Economic Circle.How high is the house price in Seoul. How difficult is it to buy a house in Seoul?

China is also this phenomenon. Most people want to stay in large first -tier cities, but how much can people who can buy houses in first -tier cities?Therefore, most young people are competing fiercely in big cities, small living space, and naturally do not want to get married and have children.

Secondly, "can’t afford".As we all know, in East Asia, one of the "volumes" than one, in terms of raising children, "roll education" is a thing that every parent is rushing.

According to the survey, in Shanghai, China, a child from birth to junior high school costs about 800,000 yuan. Such costs have far exceeded the income of a family.In order to allow children to win on the starting line since childhood, a primary school student has a summer vacation tuition fee, interest class, etc., has added up to more than 80,000 yuan.Even for first -line cities like Shanghai, it is difficult to reach 80,000 yuan in income for a monthly salary class.

Japan and South Korea are also facing this situation. The sky -high price bill for raising children far exceeds the actual income of a family. Raising a child means to increase a lot of economic burden, which has also discouraged many young people.

In the face of this situation, countries have introduced various policies to encourage young people to give birth and reduce the burden on young people.Take Japan as an example, Japan launched all costs to all of the children in Japan to reduce children and kindergartens. Tuition and medical expenses below junior high school are free, and the monthly "children’s wages" equivalent to about 1,000 yuan are issued.

The Japanese government is so hard to reduce the economic burden of young people and raise the fertility rate.But in this case, Japan’s fertility rate is still decreasing because many women are unwilling to have children!

In the past, in people’s subconscious, women were used to have children."What else can a woman not stay at home?"This is the concept of most people.

However, with the development of society, the status of women has continued to rise, and the higher the education level, the more realized that women can not only marry and have children, belong to men’s positions, work, and roles.Better.

At the same time, when women enter the workplace, they are still discriminated against.Some companies say that women have been pregnant for a year or longer, which will cause instability of corporate personnel.Therefore, when employers are employed, they will bring restrictions on women’s cause.At the same time, there are also many women who are worried that they will affect work during the maternity leave, afraid to lose their jobs, but dare not give birth to children.Because of these factors, more women do not want to have children.

The reduction of fertility rate is not formed in one day, and it is not possible to improve the fertility rate.Most East Asian countries are constantly optimizing the fertility policy subsidies and promoting the marriage of young people.Maybe one day in the future, the mantra of the low fertility rate may be broken?

Author: Guru

References: "Policy Thinking of" Super Subsidities " -also on the experience and lessons of Japan and South Korea

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