What can expectant mothers do to reduce the risk of children’s allergies?

Everyone may find that there are more and more children with allergies around us.Allergies are a typical example of errors in the immune system. The immune system confuses harmless foreign substances with harmful substances and launch an attack.In order for children to have a healthy immune system, they need to contact a variety of bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms in the natural environment. Not only will they not let us get sick, but through contact with these "old friends", the immune system will learnIt is normal operation and correctly identifies which microorganisms are friends and which are enemies.

The intestine plays a very important role in the development of the body’s immune system. The intestine is actually the largest immune organs of the human body and has more than 70%of immune cells.There are millions of microorganisms in the intestine, and the diverse intestinal flora is important for the healthy development of the child’s immune system.

The first 1,000 days of life (from pregnancy to two years old) is a critical period for the development of intestinal flora. After these 1,000 days, the child’s intestinal flora has stabilized and closer to the intestinal flora of adults.Therefore, the selection of nutrition and lifestyle at the beginning of life is very important. It may shape the child’s immune system and determine whether they will suffer from certain specific allergies in the future.It is now believed that the natural process of establishing microbial communities in the infant intestine changes, allergies may occur.

The mother’s uterus is usually considered a sterile and there is no microorganism. So, what can expectant mothers do to help reduce the risk of baby’s allergies?There are also many factors that need to be considered about immune systems, pregnancy and allergies.

Fetal immunization system

Not long ago, scientists believed that the immune system of fetuses and babies was just an immature version of the adult immune system.In many ordinary medical textbooks, the fetal immune system is considered to be taken for granted that the fetal immune system has not responded to external threats (such as invasive bacteria).Now, we know that this idea is completely wrong. The fetal immune system itself is not immature. In fact, it is different from the adult immune system.

The fetal immune system is now considered to have a response to the outside world, so it can stimulate immune cells against these threats.However, the fetal immune system usually does not treat microorganisms as external threats because there are usually no microorganisms in the uterus.However, the fetus may mistake the allergens from the mother as a foreign threat.In the uterus, these allergies will be remembered by the fetal immune system, and in some cases, babies will become "sensitive".When a baby is born and exposed to allergens outside the uterus, their immune system remembers that this is a threat, which may cause allergic reactions.

Although the intestinal tract and uterus of the fetus may not be alive, more and more evidence shows that the uterus and fetal intestine may contain allergens.So, when the baby is still in the uterus, will they be allergic to something?If the baby is allergic to the uterus, should expectant mothers avoid all foods that may cause allergies during pregnancy?

Will the baby allergic in the uterus?

In terms of biology, the mother has a huge impact on the child’s immune system.In the third trimester, the mother began to transfer a large amount of antibodies to the baby and establish the infant’s immune system, so that they had a certain degree of protection after birth.

During the entire pregnancy, the anti -infected IGG antibody can be passed from the mother to the baby. It is different from the allergic IgE antibody and is considered the only antibody that can pass through the placenta.IgG antibodies provide babies to protect babies during the development of early infants.From the middle of pregnancy to the full month, many of the mother’s IgG antibodies will be passed on to infants, and the antibodies reaches the baby in the late pregnancy.These metastases often last 4 to 6 months after birth.

Although IGG is considered the only antibody that can be passed through the placenta, IgE antibodies from the mother were found in the umbilical cord after birth.One theory believes that in the late pregnancy, a large number of IgG antibodies are transferred from the mother to the fetus, and some IgE antibodies will be "equipped" to enter the IGG antibody together.

Allergens can also pass from the mother to the fetus through the placenta.Food allergens from the mother’s diet were found in the amniotic fluid around the fetus, and the fetus usually swallowed these amniotic fluid containing allergens.This means that the baby is completely likely to have an allergic reaction to some things in the uterus, and the baby will also have the risk of allergies in the future, especially if they have some kind of allergies, which are genetically susceptible.After all, if allergens and IgE antibodies can be passed on from the mother, the baby’s contact with the same allergen can cause allergies again.

Therefore, in the early 21st century, it was recommended that high -risk mothers restricted ingestion of allergens during pregnancy, which is the mother or the first child who had a history of allergies.The concept of "allergen in the uterus" means that even if the trace is consumed, allergens will cause infants to become sensitive and continue to develop into allergies.

What can expectant mothers do to reduce the risk of children’s allergies?

There is evidence that the baby may become sensitive in the uterus, so it is easily affected by allergens. So what can expectant mothers do during pregnancy to reduce risks?

1. Go to the countryside and go

Strong evidence shows that traveling to rural areas during pregnancy can reduce the risk of baby’s allergies.

A study published in 2012 tracks children from more than 1,000 rural and non -rural mothers in five European countries in order to better understand the reasons for children’s asthma and allergies.Studies have shown that exposure during pregnancy is related to the reduction of asthma in children with asthma.Why is this so?Because there are many different microorganisms in the farm environment, touching this microorganism during pregnancy can increase the baby’s immune system, thereby reducing the risk of allergic diseases.

Many studies have shown that growing on farms can prevent allergies.In addition to the diversity of microorganisms, proper contact with internal toxins also helps prevent allergies.Vexide exists on a bacterial cell wall. When bacteria are released, they are almost ubiquitous in the environment, including indoor.

Winxin can transform the immune response from TH2 mode to TH1 mode.The level of toxins in the farm environment is particularly high, living on the farm, contacting internal toxins and microorganisms, which is very helpful to prevent children’s allergies.

However, it is worth noting that it is important to contact the internal toxins.If you have asthma and pollen heat, it seems that exposure to the internal toxins in future life seems to increase them.A study by researchers at the University of Western Australia on the asthma model proves this well.Researchers use egg white allergies to a group of rats, and give internal toxins within four days before or after allergens, and rats will not have asthma;Rat injection of toxins can cause mice to suffer from asthma.Therefore, the time and dose exposed to internal toxins are very important for establishing immune tolerance.

Pregnancy is a good time for early exposure to internal toxins.A study in Jilin Province in my country compares the umbilical cord blood of pregnant women in rural areas and non -rural areas to evaluate the exposure of the mother’s internal toxins.Researchers have found that the content of internal toxins from women from rural areas is much higher than women in non -rural areas.The umbilical cord blood results born of the baby born in rural mothers show that the immune response has shifted from TH2 mode to TH1 mode.

A larger -scale study compared the risk and protection factors of European farm children and non -farm children’s allergies.Children’s allergies are evaluated through standard questionnaires, and blood sample evaluation IgE antibody levels are collected at the same time.The researchers also asked their mother’s contact with farm animals in the questionnaire.Those children living in farms or families are considered "farm children", and other children are called "non -farm children".

This study answered a total of 8263 questionnaires.The most important thing is that researchers have found that the prevalence of allergies, pollen heat and asthma is significantly lower than non -farm children.

Those mothers have the best immune system for children who work in a stable farm during pregnancy.Even if their children are not "farm children", in other words, they do not live on farms, but as long as mothers who work in stable farms during pregnancy, their children will have a reduction of allergen -specific IgE antibodies after many years.What’s more interesting is that every time a maternal exposure to a farm animal during pregnancy will increase the protection of the child’s immune system.From this study, contact with microorganisms and endotoxin is critical to the establishment of a baby’s immune system in the uterus.Therefore, during pregnancy, go to the farm and walk more.

2. Keep a pet

Evidence shows that when nourishing pets during pregnancy is also good for the baby’s immune system, which can reduce the possibility of allergies.Although the protection of pets is not as good as farm labor, it is also valuable.

Some studies have compared the relationship between children’s early allergies and contacting specific elements (such as pets) in early life.In 2008, researchers found that dogs and cats would lead to low levels of IgE antibodies in neonatal umbilical cord blood.Three years later, the research team announced further results and found that the babies born of the mother born during pregnancy during pregnancy have been low in their early life.

3. Relieve stress

Stress during pregnancy will adversely affect the immune system of unborn babies because it will induce it to move towards TH2 mode.Studies have found that the level of IgE antibody in the baby’s umbilical cord blood that is stressed during pregnancy will also rise.

During pregnancy, it may be difficult to completely reduce stress. The following are useful suggestions:

Pay more attention to your babies to spend more time with family and friends to ensure sufficient sleep, eat, drink, try to meditate and yoga free time, you can read books or watch TV series you like

4. Diet

Diet is one of the most controversial topics, because there are many contradictory research evidence.However, diet is also a factor that pregnant women can actually control. If you can choose to choose a diet, you can enhance your baby’s immune system and reduce the risk of allergies.

Governance of high -fat diet during pregnancy increases the risk of children’s allergies

High -calorie and high -fat diet will increase the risk of children with asthma and allergies.

A study in Ireland found that the high dietary intake of pregnant women is related to the increase in the risk of asthma in children.A study by more than 2,000 mothers and babies in Gaozhi Prefecture, Japan found that mothers with allergic babies have more fats than mothers without allergic babies.Therefore, it is recommended that pregnant women try not to indulge in high -fat food during pregnancy.

Will specific foods cause unborn babies to allergies?

When it comes to increase or reduce the risk of allergies, different research results are often obtained for different groups and ethnic groups, and some are even contradictory.

For example, a research in Germany found that mothers consume a large number of artificial butter, vegetable oil, and other allergies when they are two years old and other allergies, which are consistent with other research results.But surprisingly, researchers also found that celery and citrus fruits are also related to eczema and other allergies.A Finland study found that a large amount of fruits and berry juice were related to the increase in the risk of pollen heat.

A study in Singapore found that the diet rich in seafood and noodles is related to the reduction of allergies at the age of 18 and at the age of 3.But on the other hand, a comprehensive analysis of 18 studies in Europe and the United States found that there is no evidence that eating fish and seafood during pregnancy can reduce the risk of children with asthma and pollen heat.

A research in Spain found that adhering to the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy can reduce the risk of asthma and characteristic reactions when children are six and a half years old.However, another study in Mexico found that in addition to sneezing, the Mediterranean diet during pregnancy is not good for reducing the symptoms of allergies of 6 years old.

So, what should we believe?In fact, in the face of this contradictory discovery, it is useful to carry out many studies.The topic of diet and infant allergies during pregnancy is the ideal field of charm analysis. In early 2018, a very good contingent analysis was published, evaluating more than 400 studies involving 1.5 million people.Studies have found that pregnant women take fish and oil capsules every day from the 20th week of pregnancy and breastfeeding. The risk of egg allergies at 12 months when she is 12 months old is reduced by 30%.

Researchers have also found that there is no evidence that food, dairy products, and eggs that may cause allergies during pregnancy can reduce the risk of children’s allergies or eczema.They also evaluated other dietary factors during pregnancy, including the intake of fruits, vegetables and vitamins, but did not find clear evidence that these factors would affect the risk of allergies or eczema.

Vitamin D

In 2016, another contribution analysis conducted by researchers from the Shanghai Environment and Child Health Key Laboratory found that the low intake of vitamin D during pregnancy during pregnancy is related to the increase in children’s eczema risk.Vitamin D levels are very low during pregnancy. Lack of vitamin D needs to be corrected by supplements. These supplements should continue to take three to six months after the baby is born.

So, what should pregnant women eat?

At present, the general consensus in the scientific community is that there is no sufficient evidence that women avoid eating specific food during pregnancy or breastfeeding to protect their children from infringement of allergic diseases, such as eczema and asthma.In other words, there is no reason to limit the diet of expectant mothers, including peanuts, eggs and milk and other allergic foods.

The best suggestion is to develop a healthy diet.The healthy and balanced diet rich in dietary fiber, fruits and vegetables is the most suitable diet for any expectant mother. It is also recommended to eat two to three safe fish per week.

Some researchers believe that we should actively encourage expectant mothers to eat various foods, including foods containing allergens, not restrictions.Unless there are good reasons, such as food allergies, expectant mothers can and should eat all common allergic foods during pregnancy.Studies have shown that repeated contact with allergens in the early stage is likely to promote the tolerance of allergens, not sensitivity.

As I said earlier, trace allergen can be passed to the baby through the uterus, and may occur "intrauterine allergies."Theoretically, low -dose and non -frequent contact with allergen may of course cause allergen and TH2 allergic reactions.However, allergens that are often exposed to high doses may cause children to tolerate it.

In 2014, the United States published two research on nutrition during pregnancy:

The first study found that children born to mothers who eat more peanuts or nuts during pregnancy are much lower than that of peanuts or nuts.

The second study evaluated the 1277 mother and child of Massachusetts.During pregnancy, researchers obtained information about mothers’ ingestion of common children’s allergic foods.The baby was tracked to about 8 years old and evaluated allergies.Studies have found that mothers who eat more peanuts, milk and wheat in early pregnancy have a low chance of suffering from allergies at the age of 8, especially asthma.

Researchers believe that the time window for pregnant women to eat these "dangerous" foods is crucial.The first three months of pregnancy is a critical period for the development of an unborn baby immune system and the tolerance of allergens.The fetus only started to produce IgE antibodies at the 11th week of pregnancy. Therefore, researchers believe that during the critical period of the development of the immune system, early contact with the mother’s diet to contact food allergens may cause tolerance rather than sensitivity.Indeed, studies have found that the mother who eats peanuts in the first three months of pregnancy has reduced the chance of peanut allergies in childhood by 47%in childhood.

5. Proper replenishment of probiotics

Probiotics are a kind of active microorganisms that are good for our overall health at any time, as well as during pregnancy and breastfeeding.An analysis of a gathered analysis of 28 probiotic supplement tests involving more than 6,000 pregnant women involving more than 6,000 pregnant women found that from the 36-38 weeks of pregnancy and the first three to six months of breastfeedingThe risk of eczema is reduced by 22%.

6. Reduce the use of antibiotics during pregnancy

A convincing evidence shows that if the mother takes antibiotics during pregnancy, her child’s risk of allergies will increase.Data from the Finnish National Registration Office specifically showed that the risk of milk allergies for mothers after using antibiotics.Large -scale studies from Denmark and Britain show that the use of antibiotics also increases the risk of children’s asthma.One of the reasons for the increase in these risks is that taking antibiotics during pregnancy will affect the intestinal flora of future infants, including the reduction of bacterial types.

In fact, the use of antibiotics during pregnancy will increase the child’s risk of infection by nearly 20%.A study surveyed data from more than 770,000 Denmark children. From newborns to 14 years old, they found that if antibiotics or mothers take antibiotics that are not only a course of treatment in the later stages of pregnancy, the risk of children’s infection will increase.This risk is even higher among children born in Shunshu. This is because antibiotics will change the mother’s own intestinal flora and the bacterial environment in the vagina. Therefore, the first contact with microorganisms during childbirth will changeEssence

Therefore, if pregnant women need to use antibiotics to fight severe infection and maintain health, then there is no doubt that she should do this.However, the use of antibiotics during pregnancy should carefully consider the necessity of antibiotics, and the use or excessive use of antibiotics may have the impact of long -term health, especially our children’s health.

What can we do as parents?

Traveling to rural areas during pregnancy can reduce the risk of baby’s allergies, so go to the countryside during pregnancy. If you have conditions, you can find a beautiful environment for a while.

Pets during pregnancy are also good for the baby’s immune system, which can reduce the possibility of allergies. If you particularly like it, you can consider raising a pet dog or pet cat.

There is no special restriction of diet during pregnancy or breastfeeding, but the early stage is to ensure a healthy diet.High -fat diet during pregnancy increases the risk of children with asthma and allergies.However, there is no evidence that avoiding any allergic foods can help prevent children’s allergies.On the contrary, more and more evidence shows that eating more allergic foods in the first three months of pregnancy may help reduce the risk of baby’s allergies.

Pay attention to monitoring the level of vitamin D during pregnancy. If the level of vitamin D is low, it may increase the risk of eczema in the future, and you can consider taking vitamin D supplementary agents.

Omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy can reduce the risk of baby’s allergies. It is recommended to eat two to three safe fish per week.

Proper replenishment of probiotics during pregnancy and lactation can help reduce the risk of baby’s allergies.

The use of antibiotics during pregnancy will increase the risk of baby’s allergies. If there is no absolute necessary, use antibiotics carefully during pregnancy.

In fact, all of them help the baby to build a healthy intestinal flora after birth to promote the normal development of the immune system.Since birth, microorganisms have settled on the baby, so at this time, what can we do to reduce the risk of the baby’s allergies?Next chat!

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