From the Scottish maid to the astronomical legend: she made a joke that "my maid is better than you" has become a reality

Professor Edward Pickering

More than 140 years ago, Edward Pickering, a famous astronomer and a professor of physics at Harvard University.

This was originally used by Professor Pickering to talk about the male students who did not use their astronomical department, but never expected that it was magically fulfilled after many years ….

Because Professor Pickering really had a Scottish maid later, the Scottish maid really exceeded all his students, and eventually became an astronomer who changed human history!

The woman called "Drawing the Map of Paradise" is called Williamina Fleming. The maid who has never been educated by higher education, a single mother abandoned by her husband, becomes a astronomer who becomes a design star classification system and found hundreds of stars.Fleming wrote a real look at the legend of the starry sky …

Williamina Fleming

Her story, let us start from scratch.

In 1857, Williamina Fleming was born in Dengdi, Scotland. She was born in poor. She did not have the opportunity to receive good education. Although Fleming loved reading and mathematical results, she still had to be the same as that of many of the sophisticated Scottish girls around., Drop out early to go out to work, and the most common job they do is to be a maid at other people’s house …

At that time, the environment in which she was not allowed to have any decent pursuit. She was married early at the age of 21. As soon as she had a baby in her stomach, her husband claimed to go to the United States to make a lot of money.After running to the United States, not long after setting up, the husband left Fleming, who was pregnant with six, and ran away …

In a foreign country, Fleming raised his eyes, and his stomach was still with a child. Suddenly he lost his relying. Fleming was too sad. The first thing she thought was to find a job and feed herself and the child who was about to be born.

So, she ran around and wanted to find a job of a maid. After a few weeks, she finally had a result:

The wife of Edward Pickering professor of Harvard University, Edward Pickering, decided to hire the single mother as a maid. Fleming knows that it is not easy to work.The account is also clear.

But at the beginning, Professor Pickering, the male host, did not find any special feature of Fleming. He only occasionally asked Fleming to do some copying after returning home, but he soon discovered that even if he copied itAt work, the maid who had dropped out of school was also meticulous, and Professor Pickering began to look at Fleming.

Soon after, Fleming was going back to his hometown to have a baby and recuperating. Professor Pickering not only agreed with her maternity leave, but also promised that the family would not ask other maids for the time being, so she waited for her to bring her baby back.

A few months later, Fleming took his newly born son back to Professor Pickering’s house and continued to be his maid for their family.

During that time, Professor Pickering remembered the vomiting that he often hung on his mouth- "My Scottish maids can do better than you …"

I couldn’t help laughing: I really had a Scottish maid.

However, Pickering did not expect to dream. Soon after, the second half of the sentence was fulfilled …

Harvard Observatory

At that time, the Harvard Observatory led by Professor PicKering was not very valued and the funds were stretched. If men were hired to work, the salary expenses could not afford it."Anyway, the work of these women’s" volunteers "is either observing the starry sky, or a" computor "who acts as records and calculate some data, or copywritten, and do something to do with male astronomers ….

Professor Pickering also had a girl who was a "computor". However, the sister paper did it for a while, because he had to marry a long -term male ticket, so he resigned and resigned and left …

The assistant ran away, Professor Pickering instantly lacked his hands. His wife looked in his eyes and decisively recommended him a ready -made candidate -the Scottish maid at home …

Professor Pickering watched his wife suspiciously:

"are you serious?!"

Wife answered:

"Believe me, yes, Fleming’s mathematics is very good. You spend some time to teach her, it must be more reliable than your students."

In 1881, Professor Pickering obeyed his wife’s words to hire his Scottish maid Fleming as an assistant, and Fleming became Professor Pickering. The only researcher who had no higher education and no scientific research background.

Although Fleming culture is not high, wages are half less than men in the same position. They have to take care of their children when they return home. They also have to help Professor Pickering at home to do some jobs.

I picked up the treasure myself …

Standing on the left: Professor Pickering Middle Station

Although Fleming has left the school for many years, it turns out that her school hegemony attributes have not been lost. She has a very high talent and strong understanding. Professor Pickering has taught her astronomy and mathematical knowledge, and she will soon be able to understand and contrary.

Soon, Fleming began to assist Professor Pickering to measure the intensity of the starlight, interpret Professor Pickering to observe the relevant data written by the star body at night, and use the corresponding formula to calculate, and finally measure the level of these stars.

In the next few years, Professor Pickering began to try to take pictures with photography to calculate the brightness of the astrological body instead of traditional direct naked eye observation methods.

The photos taken will be displayed on a 20 -centimeter square glass plate. The starlight presented on the glass plate is a negative film, which is dimly gray, and a brighter shows a black spot.

After the imaging, Fleming needs to use a magnifying glass to check it carefully on the glass negative tablet, amplify the spectrum, and magnify the star body. Many stars present on the glass film.Click, but you can determine the relative brightness between the stars, so as to a certain extent determine the distance between them. At the same time, you can also analyze the chemical composition contained in the star body according to the patterns of some light on the glass film.Combined, it will eventually define the extremely large breadth of our universe, territory.

In this way, Fleming has changed from a single mother who was still running for a living a few years ago to a astronomical researcher who explored the starry sky and the universe and touched the world’s ultimate mysteries …

Since helping Professor Pickering observe the starry sky, she seems to open the door of the new world. The vastness and beauty of the starry sky make her intoxication. She can’t wait to learn more things and figure out everything in front of her.

Coincidentally, Fleming’s father was the only photographer in his hometown. Although Fleming was not enough, he had been stuck at his father from an early age, which made her quite internally travel to the photography technology.——Ex she seems to be born for this job …

The Scottish maid who dropped out of school in her teenage was difficult to survive under the pressure of life. After more than ten years, she finally found the greatest fun and the most suitable position of her life.

She holds a magnifying glass every day, and repeatedly does a job that looks boring and boring. From those who are not humble, they analyze and identify the stars after the analysis and identification.Stars that have passed.

Every day, she devoted her wholeheartedly to work, and hurried home to take care of her son after get off work. Although she was busy like a gyro, she was as sweet as she was.

Professor Pickering couldn’t help feeling in his eyes:

"My Scottish maids can do better than you", no longer a joke …

Given that Fleming is looking for the unique talents in the stars, Professor Pickering has upgraded her from "computor" to "stargazer". Many times, her work is no different from professors of astronomers ….

After Fleming was upgraded, in order not to delay the work of the computor, she also took the initiative to recruit a group of female computers to train by her himself. The work efficiency and results of the entire team were a lot higher than the former male team.

In Fleming’s view, women have a great congenital advantage in astronomical observation:

Patience, meticulous, considering the problem …

The results of Fleming’s "Find Star" are also amazing. When she had just joined Professor Pickering’s team, a total of less than 200 variable stars were discovered before Harvard’s Observatory (unstable brightness, often changes, and other physical changes).In the 10 years after Fleming began to find the stars, she and her female assistants found a total of more than 100 variants, a considerable part of them was discovered by Fleming independently!

In 10 years, she looked at each glass champion carefully every day, and kept discovering, identifying, and classification of these stars.

In a book published in 1890, Fleming has made a careful analysis and classification of 10,351 stars …

At this time, Fleming is already a veritable astronomer. She led her female disciples and won new achievements. It also made Harvard’s Observatory, a department that had not been seen in the past, became the eyes of everyone’s eyes.The star department.

Outside of the reputation, slander is rising …

The men who were so embarrassed by the "Scottish maid" couldn’t hang on their faces, and they began to change the trick of black Fleming and the women in her team.

Soon after, there was a argument in the society:

Women are good at astronomical observations. Frequent new discoveries are because they are naturally intelligent, so they adapt to boring repetitive labor.

And men, because they are born with strong intelligence, so the repetitive labor of "low -level" is easy to disgust, but it is easy to make mistakes and find a new star passing by. Therefore, Fleming and her female assistants should thank men for "Only by disdain "work, so that they have a chance to be famous for their women.In short, it is not a man, but the "stupid" of a woman has achieved them …

Faced with such brain -open deliberately slander, Professor Fleming and Professor Pickering were all furious. They publicly invented the statement and stunned loudly:

Fleming and her female assistants can succeed in this field, just because of one word -eager, they are eager to think and experiment, desire to contribute to science, and desire to give this a little change in this world.This desire has made them the "most suitable" person.New star track.

Fleming and her women are a group of people who really love stargazing and explore the universe!

After all, she couldn’t stop Fleming’s progress after all. Her achievements in the astronomical field were obvious to all, and the starlight could not cover her light.

In 1899, Fleming was appointed as the first chairman of the Harvard Access Photography Association. The Scottish maid of that year was not only the first female to obtain official positions, but also the first female to get official positions in Harvard University.Intersection

In the past few years, Fleming has not only continued to cultivate in astronomy. She has also repeatedly spoke with her mentor and Bole. Professor Pickering spoke for women’s job opportunities in various industries!

In 1911, 54 -year -old Fleming suffered from malignant pneumonia, and a generation of astronomers resigned …

This great woman who has not been highly educated, with his talent, enthusiasm and diligence, has grown from a maid to a great female woman who has become a generation of astronomers. Her achievements are still scientifically, benefiting humans …

In the 30 -year astronomical observation career, Fleming invested a new classification system for more than 10,000 stars, and found 10 new stars, 310 variable stars, and 94 Wolf La Yexing (a large -quality star that is being evolved)., 52 Nebula,

Among them, there is the most famous, the most well -known, one of the most beautiful nebula -Orion horses.

Orion horseshotou Xingyun Cloud

Oscar King Erd once said:

"We are all in the gutter, but there are still people looking up at the starry sky."

Williamina Fleming is such a great woman looking up at the starry sky. She used the unremitting struggle for her lifetime, leaving countless dazzling stars and the beautiful nebula. They all contained the history of the history with Fleming …Then, then

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